Paneling is the bane of my existence but I've had to do a lot of it lately. It's more like a science than art.
There are a few things to consider before trying to panel out a comic page
1) how rigid the panels will be. This often relates with genre/demographic. Generally boys'/manly stuff has very blocky rigid panels while girls' comics come in all kinds of polygonal shapes and sizes.
2) how easy it is to read/follow. this is super important otherwise people might start reading the wrong panel order
3) where you put the text. lots of dialogue makes object placement difficult so you may have to find alternatives, extend page count or trim down text. It takes skill to fit lots of dialogue in one page so it's not for beginners
4) whether the page is on the left or right. Imagine comic pages as if they are a spread of two pages instead of a single page at time. Helps things flow better.
5) determine what the most important frames of the page will be. The most important panel is the largest one.
6) number of panels-- ~generally~, don't go over 6 or 7 otherwise it gets too busy. The average should be around 5.
7) harmony in the panels. three-point-harmony (like if you can draw a triangle connecting all the things filling the frame) is generally considered balanced. but it's also up to your artistic taste, and if the panel's too small don't worry about cramming stuff into it, keep it simple
make sure it isn't monotonous. If you use the same general panel layouts page after page it's going to be really boring to read, experiment with tall panels, wide panels, and so on (while keeping #2 in mind). Also try to draw with all kinds of angles/perspectives
9) there should be some kind of establishment of setting roughly once every other page (or more, if you really like to draw backgrounds). when people are surrounded by sparkles or action lines 100% of the time, no one knows where they are or what they're doing.
Other than that, there are no definite rules. The only way to get the hang of it is to study a lot of comics and then practice. sometimes you have to redo a single page 3 times or more before the flow feels right.
Also, when all the panels are the same size and shape, it's called a storyboard. That's another handy piece of advice when it comes to visualizing the pacing. play it like a movie in your head, take screencaps with your memory and try to put them down on paper.
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